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Artificial Intelligence: Group Movement

Company of Heroes Squad Formations Explained

Chris Jurney (Kaos Studios)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 4, 2008.
Abstract: This article describes all the techniques used to produce the squad formation movement in Company of Heroes. The squads controlled with this system have very tactical and visually interesting motion that handles obstacles and destructible environments with minimal impact on performance. A variety of techniques are described that, when used together, produce high quality squad motion.

SquadSmart - Hierarchical Planning and Coordinated Plan Execution for Squads of Characters

Peter Gorniak, Ian Davis (Mad Doc Software)
PDF link, Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), 2007.
Abstract: This paper presents an application of Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning to a squad-based military simulation. The hierarchical planner produces collaborative plans for the whole squad in real time, generating the type of highly coordinated behaviours typical for armed combat situations involving trained professionals. Here, we detail the extensions to HTN planning necessary to provide real-time planning and subsequent collaborative plan execution. To make full hierarchical planning feasible in a game context we employ a planner compilation technique that saves memory allocations and speeds up symbol access. Additionally, our planner can be paused and resumed, making it possible to impose a hard limit on its computation time during any single frame. For collaborative plan execution we describe several synchronization extensions to the HTN framework, allowing agents to participate in several plans at once and to act in parallel or in sequence during single plans. Overall, we demonstrate that HTN planning can be used as an expressive and powerful real-time planning framework for tightly coupled groups of in-game characters.

Cooperative Pathfinding

David Silver (University of Alberta)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 3, 2006.
Abstract: Cooperative pathfinding is a general technique for coordinating the movements of multiple units. Units communicate their planned paths, enabling other units to avoid their intended routes. This article explains how to implement cooperative pathfinding using a space-time A* search. Moreover, it provides a number of improvements and optimizations, which allow cooperative pathfinding to be implemented both efficiently and robustly.

Simple Techniques for Coordinated Behavior

Jeff Orkin (Monolith Productions)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 2, 2003.
Abstract: There are a number of common problems that arise when developing AI systems for combat with multiple enemies. Agents block each other�s line of fire. Agents follow the exact same path to a target, and often clump up at a destination. Some agents are oblivious to a threat while others nearby are getting shot or even killed. Multiple agents decide to do the exact same action or animation simultaneously. It would seem that a group behavior layer of complex higher-level reasoning would be needed to solve these problems. In fact, these problems can be solved with simple techniques that use existing systems and leverage information that individual agents already have. This article describes simple techniques that can be used to solve coordination problems, using examples from Monolith Productions' "No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in H.A.R.M.'s Way."

Team Member AI in an FPS

John Reynolds (Creative Asylum Ltd.)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 2, 2003.
Abstract: The use of teammates has become very popular among the first and third person action genres in recent years, in both the simulation and arcade sub-genres. However, implementing convincing teammates who will not run in your path while you are shooting, nor disappear into a far corner of the map, is quite an involved process. By implementing some key rules it is possible to create teammates who can usefully back you up in the thick of the action, follow instructions reliably, and survive with you until the end of the game.

Squad Tactics: Team AI and Emergent Maneuvers

William van der Sterren (CGF-AI)
AI Game Programming Wisdom, 2002.
Abstract: AI squad behavior is made up of coordinated individual actions towards a joint goal. There are two basic coordination styles: centralized control by a leader, and decentralized cooperation between individuals. This chapter discusses the latter style in detail. Decentralized cooperation can already be realized with minor changes to "standard individual AI". This chapter illustrates how some tactical squad maneuvers can emerge from these coordinating individual AIs, using a squad assault as an example. The limitations of the approach are illustrated using a second example: a squad ambush. This chapter precedes and complements the chapter "Squad Tactics: Planned Maneuvers".

Squad Tactics: Planned Maneuvers

William van der Sterren (CGF-AI)
AI Game Programming Wisdom, 2002.
Abstract: AI squad behavior can also be realized by designing an explicit team leader, responsible for planning and managing the squad's maneuver. This AI team leader assesses the squad's state, picks and plans the most appropriate squad maneuver. He executes the squad maneuver by issuing orders, and by interpreting feedback and information from the squad members. This is illustrated using a bounding overwatch squad advance. This centralized style to squad AI is more complex than the emergent behavior in "Squad Tactics: Team AI and Emergent Maneuvers". However, it does provide largely autonomous operating squads, able to execute complex maneuvers, and often combines well with some decentralized cooperation among squad members.

Tactical Team AI Using a Command Hierarchy

John Reynolds (Creative Asylum)
AI Game Programming Wisdom, 2002.
Abstract: Team-based AI is becoming an increasingly trendy selling point for first- and third-person action games. Often, this is limited to scripted sequences or simple "I need backup" requests. However, by using a hierarchy of decision-making, it is possible to create some very convincing teams that make decisions in real time.


Chad Dawson (Stainless Steel Studios)
AI Game Programming Wisdom, 2002.
Abstract: In games today, formations are expected for any type of cohesive group movement. From squad-based first-person shooters to sports sims to real-time strategy games, anytime that a group is moving or working together it is expected to do so in an orderly, intelligent fashion. This article will cover standard military formations, facing issues, mixed formations, spacing distance, ranks, unit mobility, group pathfindng, and dealing with obstacles.

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